How to transfer large amount of data to/from my VM?
There is no universal answer, as it depends on multiple factors. In practice, in most cases, the network transfer is both fastest and easiest – unless the amount of data is really huge or your office internet connection is of very poor quality. For special cases we provide other possibilities (like sending disks or network file servers).
If your office Internet connection has bandwith exceeding 100Mb/s, for network data copying of the amount counted up to hundreds of gigabytes, the easiest and most convenient way is to use copiers of ssh family: scp or sftp. Those are instantly available on all machines and require no configuration. E.g.
home_server$ scp /path/to/my/files/* firstname.lastname@example.org:/where/to/put/them