How to run visual applications?

Basically there are three techniques.

The simplest (but inefficient for intense pixel graphics, as in satellite imagery analysis programs) is X-over-ssh. Nothing must be configured. The window of a single application is just displayed on terminal screen.

Other sulutions provide remote desktop functionality: the whole desktop (with multiple windows, menus, etc.) is maintained on server side and visualized as one window on terminal screen. Such approach provides better responsiveness for pixel graphics, at the cost of the need for configuration and lack of full window integration.

The most popular suite for remote desktop is the VNC standard, described in details in a separate HowTo.

Other solution is NX standard which, however, requires X2Go software, which is not supported directly by linux distributions. Nevertheless, it can be used and many people prefer it over VNC.  Clients are available for linux, Windows, and Mac.

The installation and configuration is well guided on X2Go official site